Identifying Different Types of Research
1. Descriptive Research: includes survey research like you did in the first session when you tried to find out anxiety levels and most the watched tv shows. The purpose of this research is to describe what is. Historical research looks at describing what was. It sometimes uses photographs, artifacts, and documents to try to recreate what occurred in the past. Qualitative designs also often speak to describing a phenomenon. Included in this category are case studies and ethnography, which we used in terms of the cafeteria assignment. Another type of qualitative descriptive research is called content analysis. In might involve reading between the lines to discover hidden biases. You might be reading your student’s journal entry and begin to realize that each entry has some violence mentioned.
2. Associational Research: looks for relationships. The two types of research in this category are correlations (ie: is age related to blood pressure?) and causal comparative which looks at differences among known groups (are boys more anxious than girls in taking research?).
3. Intervention research: is where we have experiments or sometimes use a quasi-experimental design. In these cases the researcher is trying out something to compare its effectiveness. (Is a phonics approach better than whole language in teaching reading?). In this type of research we compare two groups and hope to control for alternate hypothesis, or other reasons why the groups are different. When we can use a random sample of subjects to put into each group (the control and the experimental) it is more likely to be a true experiment. When we can not use random subjects (like in a classroom or in a school) it is called a quasi experiment.
- A study of the possible relationship that may exist between class size and learning in remedial mathematics courses. – Associational Research
- A survey of the attitudes of parents in a large urban school district toward the advanced placement courses offered by the district. – Descriptive Research
- A study designed to compare the effectiveness of two methods of teaching spelling to first graders. – Intervention Research
- An investigation by a researcher in an attempt to confirm that abstract concepts can be taught to six year olds. – Intervention Research
- A historical study of highs school graduation requirements. – Descriptive Research
- A detailed ethnographic study of the daily activities of a teacher in an inner city high school. – Descriptive Research
- A comparison of inquiry and lecture methods of teaching 11th grade history. – Associational Research
- A study designed to compare the attitudes of male and female students toward chemistry. Intervention Research
1. G. A historical study: Diplomatic relationships between Mexico and the United States from 1960 to 2010.
2. D. Content analysis: Images of women in Asian history textbooks.
3. C. Correlational study: The relationship between student attendance and achievement in chemistry class.
4. B. Survey: The number of unmarried mothers collecting social services assistance in Manila.
5. F. Ethnography: The daily activities of a hospital operating room in a Nigerian hospital.
6. A. Group comparison experiment: A comparison of the inquiry method and the lecture method in teaching high school biology.
7. H. A single subject experiment: Changing impulsive behavior through the use of praise.
An example of a case study would be The Causes of Underachievement: A Students’ Perspective.
My first research piece will be the relationship between student performance in a formative assessment and the summative assessment. Data collected is here:
Finally Richard Harvey, my excellent neighbour and Kiwi colleague and myself, discussed and compared Qualitative and Quantitative pieces of research. Click here to read all about it.